Global inequality and Development: the case of Sudan
Global inequalities are in bad shape and mostly do not appear to be getting better that much. Disparities today are about the same as they were in the early 20th century, and the pandemic continues to make things worse.
Today’s global inequality is the consequence of two centuries of unequal progress made all over the world.
Some places have seen dramatic improvements, while others have not which is the common thing all over the world. It is on us today to even the odds and give everyone, no matter where they are born or their background, the chance of a good life. Sudan is filled with inequalities that have infringed on the nations development course deeming the state an underdeveloped nation.
Global inequality disregards Sustainable Development Goal 10 whose aim is to have reduced inequalities. The goal targets to ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard. It is vital to make sure that the targets of this goal are followed in Sudan and all over the world.
Although Sudan’s GDP per capita is respectable, large numbers of Sudanese are forced to get by on far less than what is reasonable. Nearly half of the population leaves in poverty. In Khartoum, a little over quarter of the population is below the poverty line, while in north Darfur the figure is more than two-thirds. Of course there is inequality in every country. Sudan’s failure to spread its wealth in an equitable way has been one of its defining characteristics.
Too many are poor in the country and many of the areas have little to no development at all. Inequality in the nation is brought about by too much spending on the military that is done by the government, high prevalence of corruption and all money left over has been channelled into the Riverain centre which only benefits the town’s agriculture schemes and politically connected people in and around the Nile valley.
This shows how Sudan is affected by global inequality as some regions of the state are not much catered for thus leading to their development going backwards.
High levels of inequality reduce growth in relatively poor countries but encourage growth in richer countries. High levels of inequality reduce growth in relatively poor countries but encourage growth in richer countries.
Sudan being a poor country, having high levels of inequality leads to less development within the country. One of the main arguments states that greater inequality can reduce the professional opportunities available to the most disadvantaged groups in society and therefore decrease social mobility, limiting the economy’s growth potential.
In Sudan it is noted that most citizens have no chance of getting employment as it is given on a favouritism basis and not on a merit basis. This has led to underdevelopment as those in the workforce are unable to do their jobs properly thus no much development occurring within the nation.
The first two measures of development are of wealth and income. We look at gender inequality through a breakdown of labour incomes. Over the past 30 years women’s share of income has only slightly improved. Sudan in particular has large gender inequality which can be noted.
Many of the women are not formally employed and precedence is given to men over women. This leads to less development as there is total disregard of equality amongst the genders. Women are disregarded in many aspects within the country. Thus global inequality is connected to the development of a nation as seen in the case of Sudan over the years.
Inequality not only erodes our collective efforts to achieve economic growth, reduce poverty and increase social mobility. It also increases political tension and all too often fuels conflict and instability.
Inequality in Sudan has led to much political tensions that have led to wars within the nation which also led to the separation with South Sudan. It has also caused much of the poverty that experienced by the Sudanese as a whole.
Global inequality has caused much problems in nations such as Sudan. It has led to less development of the nation as a whole.
The reduction of inequalities being part of the Sustainable Development Goals aim shows how serious such issues should be taken into account of. The relationship between global inequality and development is shown that one affects the other.
About the authors: Nhuruza and Zaranyika are final students studying International Relations at Africa University in Mutare, Zimbabwe