ZIMBABWE’S dire economic and political situation means citizens will continue leaving the country, with no clear solution in sight.
In the era of globalisation, the issue of “brain drain” transcends borders, affecting nations worldwide.
The migratory flow of highly skilled individuals in quest of greener pastures is a global challenge that requires attention. Notably, over 280 million people live outside their country of birth, accounting for 3.6% of the global population, according to data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
There has been considerable brain drain in Zimbabwe over the years owing to the emigration of its skilled workforce to foreign shores. This phenomenon has had a profound impact on the economy and the development prospects of the nation. To truly comprehend Zimbabwe’s situation, it is crucial to examine the causes, impacts, and potential solutions associated with this issue.
Firstly, Zimbabwe faces an economic exodus as its skilled workforce seeks higher wages and better opportunities abroad. Economic instability, inflation, and currency crisis act as the driving forces for this exodus. In addition to that, professionals in Zimbabwe grapple with a narrow and conservative job market and have limited prospects for career advancement, prompting them to seek better opportunities abroad.
Brain drain is also exacerbated by Zimbabwean scholars seeking advanced education and research opportunities overseas. Zimbabwe has an enduring tradition of producing talented graduates, but a large number opt to pursue their careers abroad.
Furthermore, Zimbabwe’s political landscape has been characterised by a series of unpredictable phases and a lack of political harmony. These factors have given rise to uncertainty about the country’s future prospects, which has influenced the decisions made by highly skilled professionals. Furthermore, the pervasive spectre of corruption across diverse sectors has acted as a formidable obstacle hindering economic progress and demotivating these professionals from remaining within the country’s borders.
The effects of this brain drain cannot be ignored. The main one is the huge economic echo. Zimbabwe faces a significant economic impact due to the outflow of human capital investment to foreign countries. Consequently, the nation’s economic landscape has suffered a wide range of consequences, causing bottlenecks in key sectors and hindering the achievement of meaningful economic progress. According to a report by the International Organisation for Migration, Zimbabwe is among the top countries experiencing a substantial outflow of skilled labour.
This has, in turn, resulted in a skills shortfall. For instance, the critical domains of healthcare and technology face a pressing challenge: a severe shortage of specialised professionals. This shortage not only limits the potential of these sectors but also highlights the urgency of addressing the skills gap.
The complex worlds of healthcare and technology, driven by the pursuit of cutting-edge breakthroughs, are at a crossroads where the demand for expertise exceeds the available supply. This significant deficit in skilled professionals not only threatens progress but also calls for joint efforts to cultivate and harness the talents necessary for unlocking transformative advancements.
The departure of visionary intellects also casts a gloomy shadow over the nation’s potential to foster groundbreaking technologies and pioneering industries. Innovation, the lifeblood of economic progress, holds the power to transform societies. The emergence of novel technologies and industries will not only accelerate economic growth but also propel the country onto the global stage as a formidable player in the realm of innovation. However, the departure of innovative minds who are driven by a quest for fertile grounds to cultivate ideas, poses a considerable challenge and hampers innovation.
However, we can learn from the experiences of other countries. The Canadian Talent Temptation can give us some important lessons. Canada’s innovative immigration policies have successfully attracted many skilled professionals from around the world, which has helped create a diverse and dynamic workforce. One of the key policies that have contributed to this success is the Express Entry system, which was introduced in 2015. This system streamlines the immigration process for skilled workers and has resulted in over 100 000 applicants receiving invitations to apply for permanent residency each year.
There is also Germany’s Research Magnetism. Germany’s reputation for its academic excellence and research opportunities has made it a magnet for scholars and researchers from various fields. With over 380 000 international students enrolled in its universities, Germany has become a hub for higher education. Additionally, the country ranks among the world’s top three in terms of patent applications, showcasing its commitment to innovation.
Australia’s Pacific Pivot is also an interesting case. Through its strategic focus on the Asia-Pacific region, Australia has not only strengthened its economic ties but also attracted a significant influx of skilled professionals. The country’s robust economy, high standard of living, and diverse cultural landscape make it an attractive destination for talent. Australia’s General Skilled Migration programme, which targets individuals with specific skills, has been instrumental in this endeavour.
Then Singapore’s Innovation Ecosystem, due to its strategic location and pro-business policies, has emerged as a centre for worldwide innovation. The country’s focus on research and development, along with the benefits provided to businesses and ambitious individuals, has attracted a diverse pool of talented experts. Additionally, Singapore’s standing as a reliable and productive commercial setting only adds to its allure.
One also cannot ignore the United Arab Emirates, the Gulf’s Global Gateway. In recent years, the United Arab Emirates, in particular Dubai and Abu Dhabi, have developed into major global business hubs. The region’s tax-free income, cosmopolitan lifestyle, and strategic location make it an enticing destination for skilled professionals. The UAE’s forward-looking policies, including the Golden Visa programme offering long-term residency to skilled individuals, have further solidified its position as a talent magnet.
The United Kingdom’s Academic Enchantment is also a force to reckon with. Universities such as Oxford, Cambridge and Imperial College London are global magnets for academic talent. Despite recent changes in immigration policies, the UK remains a major driver of the global brain drain and transforming it into its “brain gain”.
These case studies exemplify the diverse approaches countries employ to attract and retain skilled professionals. By understanding and adapting elements of these successful strategies, nations can navigate brain drain’s challenges and harness their human capital’s full potential.
As Zimbabwe forges towards a more prosperous future, it must adopt an all-encompassing vision that takes into account the needs and concerns of both those who stay and those who leave. This vision should include fostering an environment conducive to innovation, investing in education and research, and ensuring political stability.
In fostering innovation, Zimbabwe needs to establish innovation hubs and research clusters that encourage collaboration between academia and industry. Government incentives for R&D as well as support for start-ups can stimulate innovation and create attractive opportunities for professionals.
Enhancing education is also key. Investment in education is paramount. Universities should strive to compete on the global stage, attracting talent from within and beyond Zimbabwe’s borders. Scholarships and research grants can motivate scholars to stay and contribute.
However, political stability and good governance are important. Political stability, the rule of law, and transparent governance are essential for building trust and retaining talent. Zimbabwe’s leadership should work diligently to create an environment where professionals feel secure in their intellectual and financial investments.
While the brain drain dilemma presents challenges, it also presents opportunities for transformation. By implementing proactive strategies and maintaining a forward-thinking perspective, Zimbabwe can unlock its potential and harness the full strength of its human capital.
In the words of John F. Kennedy, “Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.” For Zimbabwe, this change is vital, as the country strives to retain skilled professionals and harness its potential. By addressing the brain drain challenge, Zimbabwe can shape a brighter tomorrow for its citizens, paving the way for progress and prosperity.
About the writer: Kaduwo is a researcher and economist. Contact: [email protected] call/Whatsapp +263773376128